Following World War I, the Italian Royal Navy (Regia Marina) began exploring the use of ship-borne aircraft by converting the merchant ship Città di Messina into the twin-catapult-equipped seaplane tender Giuseppe Miraglia. Support Naval Encyclopedia, get your poster or wallpaper now ! All work as suspended in March 1916, after it went on slowly for almost a year. Between the late twenti… ONI reconstruction drawing of the Cavour class. The Regia Marina was the official navy of the country of Italy during World War II.The Regia Marina was founded in 1861 and was renamed and reorganized in 1946 after the fall of the Kingdom of Italy.. Units and organization. After the surrender of Italy to the Allies in September 1943, the Italian Fleet was apportioned between the Allied powers and absorbed into their navies. On return, the Littorio was bombarded by a B-24 Liberator (without damage), then torpedoed by a Wellington. Francesco Caracciolo Class, Faà di Bruno and Alfredo Cappellini. HOME. She was used as a training ship for the Black Sea when in 1955, at night, she was struck by a German drift mine dating from the war. This was one of the most intriguing naval camo ever designed, and it was used for observation testings. In August 1942, the Italian government requisitioned both ships, renamed Etna and Vesuvio. After the design was approved, RN Francisco Carraciolo was laid down on 16 October 1914 at Regio Cantiere di Castellammare di Stabia. RN Veneto was built at Genoa (Ansaldo Yards), launched on July 22, 1937, starting her tests in October 1939, delivered in April 1940 by then incomplete. Today. With the fall of France in June 1940 the French fleet was in principle left out of the equation, making on paper the Regia Marina, the dominant force in the Mediterranean. -An elongated hull with a redesigned bow and revised waterlines at the front. This list may not reflect recent changes (learn more). It was basically an enlarged version of Littorio class, but with 16-in guns (406 mm), twelve 152 mm in the same configuration of four triple turrets and the same 24 dual-purpose 90 mm guns in 12 twin turrets, plus an AA composed of 37 mm in twin mounts and 13.2 mm Breda in quadruple mounts, probably over 40. The last pair differed by their elongated hull forward for better sea-keeping and much reinforced AA. Litorrio and Vittorio Veneto, illustrations by the author, Ansaldo design for a 57,000 tons “super littorio”. Admiral Giovanni Sechi argued eventually that a balanced fleet with a small core of good battleships backed with carriers was the most flexible option. This category is for naval ships designed, built, or operated by Italy during World War II (1939–1945). It was an extreme case designed to trigger discussion around the optimal battleship design. This reconstruction became the most extensive any battleship experienced at that time and was remarked by engineers and naval staffs around the world for the scope of modified elements in the process. Given the links the Russian, and later Soviet navy maintained with Italian naval design, she was treated with respect. The hull was lenghtened with a new clipper bow section to have finer lines, the powerplant entirely rebuilt and modernized, partly to cope with a heavier hull (Cesare reached 28.24 knots (52.30 km/h; 32.50 mph) on post-reconstruction trials), the hull was enlarged by adding the fames Pugliese ASW system, revamped protection all around, rebored main guns with new mounts and turrets for better range and protection and no amidship turret, brand new fire constrol systems and telemeters, brand new superstructures, secondary and AA armament. 13.5"/30. The list may also include several ships commissioned before World War II. In December, the Litorrio was engaged during the first battle of the Great Syrta. 320 mm/44 Model 1934. The latter modernized her AA in 1953. Ferdinando Cassone proposal was the most ambitious and radical pre-treaty proposal for the Country that first imagine the dreadnought as a game changer. This design would have been an equivalent of the Soviet-built Sovietsky Soyuz, with the difference the latter had probably the best naval guns in WW2, capable of better ranges than the USN equivalents or even the 18-in guns of the Yamato. Modern ships. The Cavour and Cesare class, better protected and armed, seemed an all-more seductive proposition. World War II (WWII), Italian Navy, Casualties. Cassone’s large battlecruiser proposal, 1921, Italian Royal Navy’s battleship Vittorio Veneto, Littorio-class, outside Taranto in Summer 1941 [2048×1275], Courageous class aircraft carriers (1928), South Korea unveils initiative to promote eco-friendly ship technologies, Hybrid upgrades to give vessels more attractive environmental profiles, USCG’s 9th national security cutter sails away from shipyard, Taiwan launches improved ‘carrier killer’ corvette, commissions new minelayer, ¿Cuál fue la misión secreta del buque San Jacinto en Cabo Verde? The construction of RN Littorio, the class leader started in 1934 along with RN Vitorrio Veneto, followed by RN Italia, Impero never completed. The modification points are the same as those of the previous class, with less width and draft, but the main difference concerned secondary armaments: -Four 135 mm triple turrets (front) -10 anti-aircraft guns (individual) long range 90mm single mounts guns -2 twin 37mm mounts, 2 single 20mm AA Breda -Final tonnage 29,391 tonnes (Duilio) and 28,882 tonnes (Doria). The other option was a brand new unit in conformity of International agreements. Secondary artillery was no longer in barbettes, but in turrets, in all sixteen, and of 170 mm guns (7 in) and no longer 6 in. In the early years of the dreadnought, there were doubts about whether it was possible or not to have superimposed turrets. The robot mini submarines – or autonomous underwater vehicles – were launched from a modern-day Italian naval vessel. The first Italian dreadnought took a well defined path, which also influence the Russian and and their Austro-Hungarian rivals. Notice her camouflage. The Austro-Hungarians with their Tegetthof still choose to take the engineering risk of having four triple superimposed turrets, less of bravado than forced by the size of the Yard’s basin. But the Regia Marina tried to maintain more than a parity with its Transalpine rival in the Mediterranean, its WW1 capital ships were completely modernized in a way few fleets did while its projected battleships were quite impressive, such as the Carracciolo and pre-treaty postwar projects that would have dwarved anything in the Mediterranean. The final Italian design was nowhere near these protection figures, with at best 250 mm on the belt, 280 for the CT, but 22.8 knots, which was better than many BBs of the time. … -AA with 6 dual purpose 102mm and 12 37mm turrets, plus 12 dual 13mm Breda heavy machine gun mounts. Battleships Littorio, Vittorio Veneto, Roma, Aquila. Coast Artillery. He escaped the first wave but was struck by the second wave of a torpedo with the Pola. -Newly recast main cannons, rebored and relined from 305mm to 320mm, higher elevation and better range, redesigned turrets. Then in July 1940, both were at the battle of Punta Stilo (undecided). Saved by Julio Arróspide. Marco It was eventually bailed out and brought to Genoa for repairs in May 1941, but did not resume service in 1942 at the November 1943 armistice. The Veneto escaped this attack and was transferred to Naples. French Destroyers exit early access, and now there’s a new system for you to manage and upgrade your camouflage! In any case, the American, British and French navies had overwhelming superiority in the Pacific by 1944. This site uses Akismet to reduce spam. In February with two other battleships, it made an unsuccessful sortie against the Force H part bombing Genoa. The French had chosen a radical forward configuration but the Italians thought after much internal debate and several proposals, that three triple turrets, two forward and one aft, were the best compromise. Although the Axis had by then been cleared out of the Mediterranean, German forces having surrendered in Tunis that May, the ships played a significant part in the rest of the war. Related Content. Destroyer Armament. Ocean going fleet units include; two aircraft carriers, three small 7,500 tonne amphibious assault ships, four destroyers, seven frigates and six attack submarines. ITALIAN NAVY AT WAR, including Atlantic Submarine Operations and Italian Air Force in the Mediterranean Part 2 of 2 - 1942-45 Battleship Roma (Maritime Quest, click to enlarge) back to Campaigns of World War 2 BY CONFLICT. Other scale models were designed to received a reduced underwater protection, tested against light explosives. Only three weeks after the sinking of the World War II Italian cruiser, HMS Urge was destroyed with the loss of its entire crew. Designs were were presented by Ansaldo Yard (engineer Nabor Soliani) and by Orlando Yard (engineer Orlando) but also the Odero Yard (engineer Scribanti). There was a projected 50,000 tonnes “super littorio” planned by Ansaldo for the late 1940s. "Painters Guide to WW2 naval Camouflage" writes that the stripes were painted starting in July 1940, after the battle of Calabria (Punta Stilo for us Italians) since September 1943, on "many Italian ships". In August 1941, the two vessels met together and operated on the 22nd without meeting the convoy. Due to the combined fleet forces, however, these sorties were quickly abandoned. Destroyers. RN Francesco Caracciolo 1919 design Cassone’s large battlecruiser proposal, 1921, Italian Royal Navy’s battleship Vittorio Veneto, Littorio-class, outside Taranto in Summer 1941 [2048×1275] from WarshipPorn, Your email address will not be published. In September 1943 the three ships were taken to Malta for internment and attacked on the way by German bombers equipped with the new guided Fritz-X bombs. Historical Weapons. Required fields are marked *. List of active Italian Navy ships is a list of ships in active service with the Italian Navy. Armament:10 x 320mm (2×2, 2×3),12 x 120mm (6×2), 4x100mm AA, 12x13mm Breda AA. This would have been a sound calculation, as shown at Jutland, which showed bad visibility nullified range advantages. On the 12th the two vessels were sent to La Spezia to respond to Operation Torch. This category has the following 10 subcategories, out of 10 total. On the 26th of March he set sail to attack the convoys to Greece under German pressure. Decks 135-166 mm, barbettes 130-280mm, belt 130-250mm, blockhaus 250mm. The first to break this engineering wall of using massive superimposed turret were actually not the Brazilians with the Minas Gerais class, started in 1907, but by the Americans with the South Carolina class started in 1906. He will remain stationary until December. The Italia was hit at the prow and the battery, the Roma was completely destroyed by an impact in the ammunition hold. The incomplete lead ship was sold on 25 October 1920 on auction to the Navigazione Generale Italiana shipping company, which planned to convert her as a merchant ship, but but she was evtenually mothballed in Baia Bay (Naples). This page lists all of the ship classes used during World War II. The Project G class battleship on paper was a 37,000 tonnes battleship, before treaty limitations. Littorio Class. Italian Battleships during WW2 were few in numbers, just as French ones, due to the treaty of Washington signed in 1920. The new government joined the Allies. Castigar a Nicolás Maduro, Navy Releases Final RFP for Large Displacement Unmanned Underwater Vehicle Program, Video: Heroes at Sea 2020 Tribute Concert, How to solve logistical challenges during a South China Sea conflict, How some bra-wearing pigeons saved thousands of lives during WWII, A Fleet of Second Choices, Backups, and Bandaids, Uncertainty prevails over US cyber strategy shift towards ‘persistent engagement'. During the interwar years the Italian government set about modernizing the Regia Marina in a way that could enable it to reach dominance over the Mediterranean Sea. Explore. As of 2013 the navy maintains approximately 62 ships in commission (excluding minor auxiliary vessels). Its staggering cost eventually proved the same as building a brand new Littorio-class battleship. From Malta, Italia and Veneto were transferred to Alexandria, anchored in an area of the Suez Canal until the end of the war. These were the same guns, but with an improved reloading system to provide up to 2 rpm and a muzzle velocity of 830 m/s with AP shells. With his sister ship, these two vessels remained in service as a training ship until 1949. Filter 1/1800 FN DD Le Hardi  (x3) $ 8.33 by Tiny Thingamajigs. The Veneto found itself escorting a convoy when it was torpedoed by the submarine HMS Urge. At the same time, an industrial basis was developed, including much larger basins to manage the four new battleships, and the delays allowed to test many technological solutions and debate several designs. In 1946, by virtue of the treaties of peace and reparation, The Veneto was granted to Great Britain, who transferred it to La Spezia. We have to remind that the HMS Dreadnought and following classes had deck-level artillery only, on so were the early Nassau and Helgoland class in Germany. It was modernized, received additional AA artillery and a radar and resumed service with the allies. Topic. During World War II, the Regia Marina (Royal Italian Navy) engaged Allied ships not only the Atlantic and Mediterranean, but also in seas off China, where the Italians had a base at Tiensin (now Tianjin), China. The Armor was better than the Littorio, with circa 300 mm on the main belt, but moreover 150 mm for the armour deck and a conning tower with 350 mm walls. From June 1940 to September 1943, the Navy lost one battleship and 13 cruisers, out of total losses of 339 ships of all types, and 24,660 men. Veneto sailing out of Matapan, torpedoed. This made the unique RN Dante Aligheri quite original for the time, and the Ansaldo design prepared for the Russian Gangut was basically a close inspiration. WW2 Italian battleships Italy (1915-42) – 8 Battleships Italian Battleships during WW2 were few in numbers, just as French ones, due to the treaty of Washington signed in 1920. Patrol and littoral warfare units include one light patrol frigate, 10 offshore patrol vessels and two corvettes. Dante was at the same time, the first modernized Italian battleship of the interwar, and the least modified, as it was known her days were counted. The treaty influenced the development of the Italian fleet over the years between the two world wars. Laid down in 1915, work stopped until 1918 and resumed afterwards, launched in 1920 but never completed, they were demolished because of tonnage limits. But she survived. COUNTRIES. BY DECADE. However it was doomed to suffer defeat at the hands of the allied forces for several reasons. Would have it be judicious to scrap her and free some tonnage ? Src: Drake’s drum on alternatehistory.com. Same idea, with a what-if 1941 camo. Dante Allighieri, Conte di Cavour and Andrea Doria … Ansaldo later proposed a cheaper floatplane carrier alternative, to no avail. In December, she was in action at the first battle of the greater Sirta. For her part, RN Guilio Cesare, spared in Taranto, was in action on November 27 at Cape Sparivento, then she hit in Naples during an air attack in January 1941. Boats-Ships--Submarine; Document Type. Two Type 212 submarines are under construction to replace older types currently in service. In fact, Cavour was later escorted after refloating at Trieste for repairs, which were not completed when Italy surrendered in 1943. Ships - Italian Navy. This was quite impressive in 1919 and would have been equally so in 1940. The lack of armour was a presumably better speed, as the Carracciolo, and a massive firepower. I painted the stripes on all my ships, they add a nice touch of colour. The Littorio was built at the Adriatic yards in Trieste, launched on August 2, 1937. Venica arsenal worked on the horizontal protection and La Spezia on the oil boilers and the connected pipes. Post-war rearmament plans never materialized and Cavour was scrapped in 1949. -A secondary artillery in turrets (removal of barbettes), in 6 twin 120mm turrets. As of June 2013, three FREMM multipurpose frigates have been launched, with three more currently undergoing construction, a further two financed within June 2013 and a further two planned. Their engine apparatus was completely modified, their artillery realized and provided with a greater range. She was to displace 26,670 tons for an overall length of 215 m for a beam of 32 m. Top speed as specified was 30 knots. More than 600 sailors perished, and it became the most serious Soviet maritime disaster. Hope this helps! Repairs completed in June. On July 9, 1940, the Royal Navy caught the Italians off the coast of Calabria, where a first-round hit was scored by the battleship HMS Warspite on … -40% of the old structure was affected from this overhaul. The Veneto was then engaged in what would become the battle of Cape Matapan, together with the Guilio Cesare. -Two new masts, new gangway superstructure, new bridge, new rangefinders and optical instruments, radio and Wireless TF. BY TYPE. RN Cesare was hit on this occasion. Umberto Class. Thanks to a more advanced machinery rated for 130,000 hp and careful hydrodynamic studies, top speed was 30 knots (54 kph), much better than the rebuilt WW1 battleships of the Cesare/Doria class. However there was still an obstacle before Mussolini could complete his dream of “Mare Nostrum”: The Royal Navy, willing to protect both the vital Suez canal, Gibraltar, and Malta in between, fought tooth and nails with the Mediterranean fleet, and both under masterful management by Andrew Cunningham on one side, best use of radar and naval air force, and a more timid command, the lack of radar, and absence of efficient coordination with the Regia Aeronautica decided of the Mediterranean theater: From November 1940 in Tarento, the Italian pearl Harbour, to Matapan, a decivive night fighting, and despite their quality, Italian battleships won’t prevail and ultimately succumb to …German flying bombs, early anti-ship “missiles” in November 1943. That was one of the amazing results of this raid by antiquated biplanes. The squadron made another sortie to intercept a convoy to Malta on 29 September. -Dimensions/displacement: 45,000 tonnes, 256 m x 32 m -Armament: 8 x 456 mm (4×2) main, 6 x 152 mm (2×3) turrets plus perhaps 8-10 more in casemates -Estimated powerplant: 4 turbines 50,000 HP each, 18 boilers, 216,000 HP, 35-40 knots. The Royal Italian Navy in World War II - A Gallant Struggle The Royal Italian Navy (Regia Marina) in World War II, the fifth largest in the world, was a formidable fighting force, at least on paper, and was designed for aggressive, offensive action. This Project from O.T.O Livorno was elaborated between 1930-1935, related to a possible alternative transformation of the Cavour and Doria classes. The surrender of the Italian fleet was a prominent condition of this agreement. Roma was started at CRDA Trieste in September 1938 and Impero started at Ansaldo in May 1938. -Armour protection: Main tapered belt or 456 mm down to 350 and 150 mm. On the 26th of September they departed to intercept the force sent for Operation Halberd, but they returned to the port when the sortie was canceled. What-if late 1930s modernization of the Dante Aligheri. Italian Navy World War II Ship Colors: Publisher: Snyder & Short: Format: Paint chips on heavy card stock: MSRP (USD) $14.00: Review. Maestrale-Class Frigate, 1/1250 $ 8.00 by Amatuer Wargame Figures. As the country split in two, so did the Regia Marina; some ships would join the Italian Co-Belligerent navy, fighting for the allies, while others would become part of the National Republican Navy of the Italian Social Republic in the north. Italian battleship Roma (1940) CG rendering of battleship Roma. MODERN FLEETS. Propulsion and performances: 2 shafts geared turbines, 8 Yarrow boilers, 75,000 hp, 27 knots, range 6,400 nautical miles Armor: Decks 135-166mm, barbettes 130-280mm, belt 130-250mm, CT 250mm. 12"/46 Model 1909. In October 1933, he went forward submitting the admiralty a radical reconstruction project to keep Italian battleships up to date, circumvent Washington’s treaty limits by avoiding buiding new ones, and test ideas for a future, post-ban treaty fast battleship. Howevr Italy was by then in a dire economic situation, and compared to the benefits of an Italian pacification campaign in Libya, this plan was dropped. 10x 355mm (2×2, 2×3), 12 x135mm (4×3), 10 x90mm AA, 12x 37mm, 15x 20mm Breda AA. There is a caveat, however. Their silhouette in particular was very different, but their armament, dimensions and tonnage were quite similar. The Caio Duilio class differed from the Conte di Cavour class on many points. Procione, Orsa-class TB – Italian navy photo via Wikipedia. File Formats. Otherwise, in terms of gunnery performance (using optical guidance) they were theoretically a fair match. RN Litorrio on her part was completed on the 15 of May, reaching Tarentum. This redesign incorporated the experience of the reconstruction of the previous battleships but also the studies undertaken for the construction of the battleships Rapids of the Litorrio class. More information... More ideas for you Pinterest. These specifications were really a basis for the development of the Littorio. Recipient Name. Place of Event. The article title was “La fase attuale dell’evoluzione delle navi da battaglia (studio critico)” translated as “The ships of the line current evolution status – a critical essay”, signed by Ferdinando Cassone, a naval engineer. Her interwar modernization was mostly cosmetic: Starting in 1923, she had a tripod foremast installed to support a modern fire control system for the main artillery, and a catapult installed on the roof of Turret no. Progetto G was also supposed to carry sixteen 380 mm guns in four triple turrets and superfiring, quite a radical upgrade compared to the Carracciolo. 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